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We will discuss six case studies pertaining to the user, what has come to be known as options thinking in IT projects. The initial estimate for the project was that a one time of investment of 15 million was required.

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The initial proposal was rejected because of the high uncertainty in the use of the new system. It was not clear how much of the one time endorsement will be recovered.

The project was reworked as nine separate stages or modules, where each modules was expected to provide some benefit. The commitment was to execute the first module only.

After the first module was completed, Carlson had the right but not the obligation to execute the second module. With the lapse of time as the options projects progressed, some of the uncertainty in the values of the subsequent modules would result.

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And Carlson would review the options projects of the subsequent modules and modify if necessary, and even abandon implement of some options projects the subsequent modules. This approach of implementing the new customer reservation system enabled Carlson to reap substantial benefits from the project. This approach is essentially to identify different stages to the overall project.

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And exercise either the stage growth are stage abandon options. The second example is that of Yankee 24's proposal to upgrade the network infrastructure substantially to support point of sale debit cards for New England margins.

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When this project was considered inthere was high uncertainty because it is not clear whether the retailers were POS debit card as a payment option. Yankee 24 decided that some of the uncertainty may be resolved by waiting and observing customer's use of the debit cards in the neighboring regions. By deferring the decision, Yankee 24 may have to forego some of that upside gain, especially if some of that competition does enter the market by issuing POS debit cards.

But it was felt that the competition was not geared to enter the market for options projects time, at least.

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By exercising the deferral option, Yankee 24, was able to resolve some of the uncertainty, before deciding to go ahead with issuing the point of sale debit cards. The operation was expected to cost 1. So it was not worth doing only the upgrading of the system.

With the possibility of implementing some or all of the follow on projects, the upgrading of the system appeared to be very attractive. It should be noted that deciding to upgrade the system was not a commitment to implement any of the follow on projects. That commitment may be made for some or all of the options projects on projects only after the system has been upgraded and some of the uncertainty pertaining to that particular follow on project has been resolved with the passage of time required to upgrade the system.

This approach is referred to as exercising a growth option.

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The fourth example is that of the Cypress Tele-communication Authority, which anticipated the impending entry of Cypress into the European Union, which would warrant a significant expansion of its telecommunication network. But this expansion be feasible only if an investment amount was made in upgrading the existing information system options projects was being used for daily operations.

Upgrading the information system only was analyzed to be a negative project. But the option to expand the telecommunication network in the future if conditions were favorable made into a positive MPV project. This approach is referred to as viewing the option to change scale.

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The next example is that of the Trans News trading strategy binary options Airlines development of a computer aided software engineering template for the frequent flier benefit.

Any software that is developed for internal use can in principle be sold to other companies but options projects the difficulty is in customizing the software for use by some other company.

The real options approach to capital investment projects Open-access content 21st September Richard Shaw provides an insight into the valuation of projects. The real options approach to the analysis of capital investment projects can options projects found in many areas, for example the development of natural oil fields, the valuation of high-tech companies, the valuation of manufacturing flexibility, and the valuation of entry to or exit from a market. The nature of the optionality may take a number of forms. Examples are: - the option to make follow-on investments if an immediate project is successful; - the option to abandon a project if the immediate project is not successful; - the option to wait before investing, and; - the option to vary a firm's output or production methods.

But system developed by TWA was not only easy to understand but also it was easy to customize for use by other airline. This type of approach may be referred to as option to switch use. The last example is introduction of pre-paid card by Starbucks Coffee.

The original idea was to speed up the check-out process where most of the transactions were cash based. However, Starbucks is not sure of the demand for this type of card. So the initial implementation was a simple approach using magnetic stripe design that did not require much infrastructure upgradation.

As demand for the card grew, Starbucks provided additional features, such as online registration of the cards, replacement of lost cards, reloading the cards with more money, viewing past transactions, etc.

After the second stage was completed, Starbucks enhanced the use of the card by introducing loyalty points, entry into sweepstakes, notification of promotions, etc.

At the beginning when the pre-paid card was introduced, Starbucks was not anticipating the other possibilities for the use of the card.

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The embedded option in this type of approach may be referred to as stage growth and switch use options. This completes our discussion of the six cases. Get Started.