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Russian-made weapons offer a number of advantages to customers in African countries. They tend oleg komov internet earnings be cheaper than Western equivalents and are generally reliable.

Russian arms contracts often include provisions to modernize or repair Soviet-era equipment, although it is not clear whether or where any of these facilities are operational.

A South African media report claims that a joint Russian—South African helicopter maintenance facility has operated in the country since South Africa, however, is eager to modernize its oleg komov internet earnings and is seeking partnerships with European arms exporters as well, which means that Russia does not have a lock on expanding defense industry cooperation with South African arms manufacturers.

It has supplied weapons at a discount or for free to countries struggling with internal unrest. As Kimberly Marten has demonstrated, Wagner is not a true private military company, but rather a quasi-private extension of the Russian military-security establishment. Wagner, which consists of 3,—5, fighters, does not adhere to international standards for such companies.

Prigozhin-affiliated entities also finance Russian public diplomacy activities in the CAR, including sponsorship of sporting and cultural events. His presence in the CAR is widely publicized, which illustrates the blurred lines between official and off-the-books activities.

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While hard data is difficult to come by, Wagner also is reportedly active in Libya and Sudan. There are growing indications it has been looking to acquire a naval or logistics facility in East Africa in recent months.

Late to the Party: Russia’s Return to Africa

Basing arrangements could help support Russian operations elsewhere in the region and build an intelligence-collection platform to monitor the activities of U. In AugustLavrov announced plans to build a military logistics hub in Eritrea. Somaliland, a self-declared breakaway territory in Somalia, has reportedly offered Russia the opportunity to obtain rights to a naval base on its territory, likely in return for formal diplomatic recognition.

Its record is as much a testimony to its increased global ambitions as it is proof of the gap that exists between those ambitions and the capabilities available to act on them.

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It still enjoys considerable political and diplomatic oleg komov internet earnings and can capitalize on legacy ties that date back to Soviet activism in Africa during the Cold War.

At a time when high-level attention to Africa from the United States and EU member countries is in short supply, Russia has significant advantages when dealing with some governments.

When it comes to hard power, Russia has only modest capabilities at its disposal. Its navy has yet to recover from the protracted period of neglect and underfunding following the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Out-of-area naval activities have been marred by a string of embarrassing, and sometimes tragic, failures. The size of the deployment was quite modest, as was the scale of ground operations, while the air campaign was conducted at high altitudes, apparently in order to minimize the risk to Russian aircraft even from the very limited air defenses available to the Syrian opposition.

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Unlike the Soviet Union during the postcolonial era, Russia does not have an appealing ideology to offer to its partners in Africa. Shared opposition to U. This is not to say that these relationships cannot endure, but they are constrained by the fact that Russia can bring only modest resources to sustain them. In general, African leaders who underwent training or were educated in the Soviet Union and may have shared a form of ideological kinship with it are either approaching or past retirement age and leaving the scene.

Jacob Zuma, who had developed one of the closest, if not the closest, relationship with Vladimir Putin among African leaders was seventy-six years old when he left office in disgrace in Mmusi Maimane, the leader of the Democratic Alliance that holds the second-largest number of seats in the South African parliament, represents the next generation of African politicians. He is thirty-nine and was educated in South Africa and Great Britain. The largest and most durable Soviet legacy in Africa resides in the stocks of Soviet and Russian weapons in the arsenals of many African countries.

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But Russian arms manufacturers have to compete with sellers ranging from China to Israel. It still wields considerable political clout. Moscow boasts an agile and skilled diplomatic establishment and lacks ethical constraints in pursuit of its objectives.

While Russian hard- and soft-power resources do not compare to those of its much bigger competitors, they are nonetheless significant when deployed in much smaller and poorer African environments. In African countries that are isolated by Western sanctions or receive only limited attention from the international community, Russia can play an outsized, predatory, or negative role.

But, it is not about to emerge as a major military actor on the continent, let alone an economic powerhouse, especially when compared to China, the European Union, or the United States. In the few situations where Russia has achieved successes, they have been due to its ability to exploit, at times exacerbate, or capitalize on preexisting conditions rather than shape the environment and create those conditions. Policy Implications Oleg komov internet earnings United States faces important challenges as it seeks to promote democracy, peace, and prosperity in Africa.

Key tasks include supporting fragile postconflict transitions and combating sources of instability and conflict, including dangerous terrorist and violent extremist groups. By no means is this to argue that the latter issue should be neglected or ignored. Rather, the best and most enduring way to counter Russian influence in Africa would be to focus on those root causes that leave some African countries vulnerable to Russian inroads.

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This points to a multipronged approach for U. Focus secret strategy for trading on binary options fundamentals. Recent U. Addressing corruption, poor governance, weak rule of law, communal tensions, and basic quality-of-life indicators should be the key component of U.

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Investing in African populations and institutions is good place to start, as opposed to investing in individual leaders, which is what Russia does. The United States should focus on good-governance initiatives, addressing human-security needs,and pushing for sustainable economic development and investment.

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Such efforts will help re-build U. Russia is not the Soviet Union. It lacks the resources, the ideology, and the appeal of its predecessor. Its involvement in Africa is limited and guided by a combination of unrealistic ambitions and opportunism with the result often being that its policy ends up being subordinated to private interests and actors.

This falls far short of the image of great-power competition outlined in recent U. Approaching Russia in this spirit carries with it the risk of not only creating a self-fulfilling prophecy, but also of legitimizing Russian actions and ambitions. Expose malign actors. Not everything Russia does in Africa is a malign activity, but its role in corrupt schemes, support for oppressive regimes, and exploitative approach to its African partners need to be exposed. This should take the form of public-information campaigns, partnerships with local press and civil society organizations, and engagement with officials.

The alternative—trying to debunk every item of fake news and disinformation—would be wasteful and oleg komov internet earnings. Disrupt increased alignment between Russia and rising African powers in international organizations.

Russia is keen to find partners in its decades-long quest to dilute U.

It uses a wide variety of newsjobs make money online, particularly debt relief and arms sales, to cultivate votes in key international bodies and play a spoiler role to the United States or its allies on key international issues.

This clearly calls for stepping up U. Expose Wagner and other paramilitary groups.